A Fork in the Road: Pia Hämäläinen

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There is a need for greater emphasis on both direct and indirect safety and security threats to ensure the continuity of operations. During recent years, research has shifted from failures and accidents to more holistic risk management approaches addressing overall risks to business. Emergency preparedness and response capabilities are needed. Interoperable systems improve information sharing, communication, and the efficiency of rescue and reconstruction measures.

Simulation platforms and advanced training tools enable better preparedness and understanding of various emergency situations. Critical infrastructure protection and cyber security are aimed at eliminating disturbances and interference in critical infrastructures. In order to protect the well-being of citizens it is crucial to develop methods and technical solutions to reduce the vulnerability of society. The majority of safety and security work at VTT is carried out as an integral part of developing utility networks and their operating processes.

Industrial safety and occupational safety remain a worldwide challenge in many industrial sectors. Healthy and safe working conditions are closely associated with productivity and performance, with high quality work going hand in hand with a high quality working environment. Modern companies view safety as a property of an organisation and safety management as the practice of managing the sociotechnical systems producing safety.

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Safety and security are also vital considerations in complex multimodal supply chains and future transport systems. Long-term, system-level foresight provides means for expanding the scope of transport safety and security research beyond current mobility patterns, transport vehicles and infrastructures. Novel solutions and policies need to be developed and assessed to enable new prospects for supply chain security management.

Added to this, better road safety is needed to reduce the enormous socio-economic losses resulting from inadequate traffic safety. In addition to human losses, accidents, injuries and illnesses have an enormous eco-. Strategic decision making involves optimizing decisions across strategic, financial and risky investments. Economic analyses are needed to ensure that scarce resources are allocated rationally with respect to available investment and asset options. In addition to this, decision makers have to weigh up other aspects, such as safety and environmental impacts and business dynamics.

Challenges of safety and security research Safety and security should be an integral aspect of all research related to technological development, changing business environments or societal needs. Technological solutions must be based on the needs of the user, and the need for safety and security products and services will continue to be an important research driver in the future.

More commitment to their development is needed from policy makers and regulators in order to encourage and support providers. Seamless interaction between users and providers is needed to define, adapt and optimize the use of technologies to address changing threats and challenges.

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Service providers represent a broad variety of actors and competencies. End users are diverse and their operations and tasks have become more and more complex. For future development, better understanding of user needs is crucial. Close cooperation with users and customers is needed to support development and innovation processes. Technology alone cannot assure security, but security without the support of technology is not possible.

The global market for security products and services continues to grow. The market has utilised solutions from the defence sector, adapting military technologies to the regulations, processes and specifications of the civil market. In order to support the security market, multi-use technologies have been emphasised.

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However, because of new threats and needs, better understanding of the principles governing the security market is needed. As this market is still highly diverse, dispersed and fragmented, research plays an important role in solution development.


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The innovation potential in the safety and security sector is still high. In the future, the sector will increasingly utilize the evolving innovation ecosystem, which covers all stages of the innovation chain, and international competence networks and centres of excellence developed in the EU will further strengthen safety and security knowledge and expertise. New technologies, such as micro- and nanotechnology, surveillance technology and information technology offer new capabilities to improve safety and security.

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These technological and industrial innovations will enable better assurance of the vital functions of society, while technology and systems integration and interoperability will promote the implementation and application of innovative solutions. Despite new technologies and practices, not all threats to our safety and security can be eliminated.

We must live with the residual risk and be as prepared as possible. This required resilience implies that adequate early warning. We have strong expertise in Finnish research and industry. The next challenge is to harness and network this competence efficiently and effectively in the international context. This publication This publication presents a collection of extended abstracts of recent and current safety and security research projects at VTT. While the target readership is the international research community, the content is of value also to industry and other stakeholders.

Innovations for safe and secure world Urban security and smart city Foresight and identification of security threats Health and care services Proactive prevention of hospital infections Evaluation and development of patient safety culture A new concept for the provision of safety and security related services for the elderly Modelling biocontamination on board manned spacecraft Crisis management and disaster resilience Decision support for crisis and emergency management Emergency response Simulation of fire service response time and reliability Tools for risk-aware communications network operation Cyber security of critical infrastructures Industrial safety Development of an environmental stress test-case mining Defining the principles and practices of safety management in complex systems Safety requirements for machine software Error-free critical software through formal model checking Probabilistic risk analysis and decision making with FinPSA Development of distributed intelligence surveillance networks Improving product safety in the medical and food industry through direct marking technologies Water supply security Safety and security of transport system and supply chain Long-term foresight for safe and secure transport systems Road safety Towards safer road transport through systematic safety management Economic aspects of safety and security Managing strategic risks through cost-benefit evaluation Market opportunities and networking of the security and safety business in Finland Supplier-perceived customer value in security services Economic value of safety Improving resilience provides new solutions for risk management Innovation management in security organisations Value assessment of security decisions Foresight and identification of security threats Raija Koivisto Research Professor raija.

Today, the concept has evolved to encompass whole workplaces and entire organisations. Throughout these changes the responsibility for safety and security has shifted from the individual to the organisation and business networks, and, in society, to local, regional, national and international authorities and organisations. However, global changes are beyond the control of these bodies. Organisations must therefore be prepared for new emerging threats and build resilience against them.

Foresight to enhance the resilience of organisations In the globalised 21st century, protectionist approaches are no longer enough; global changes and threats cannot be avoided or prevented. The only feasible strategy for survival — both for individuals and organisations — is to build resilience and to be prepared and agile. Foresight provides systematic analysis of future changes and threats Foresight methods offer systematic ways to scrutinize future developments and changes [1, 2].

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By doing so, strong drivers are identified and their role and impact on the development of, for example, safety and security, can be. Other contributing authors: Ilpo Kulmala, Nadezhda Gotcheva analysed. Weak signals, on the other hand, serve as early indicators of new developments or surprising upcoming changes in the environment.


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  4. First, a generic model of a threat scenario was created Figure 1. Next, a range of potential scenarios was identified based on different damage mechanisms. Possible weak signals and their sources were then explored in each phase of the different scenarios, and an early warning system was then built based on these weak signals. Possibilities and benefits of foresight in safety and security In safety and security, clearly the most effective way of managing risks and minimizing damage is to prevent incidents from happening in the first place.

    But how can this be done when traditional hazard elimination approaches no longer work? In the dynamic global environment, threats and risks continuously change and emerge. Static risk assessment alone cannot guarantee safety and security — more forwardlooking approaches are needed.

    Foresight helps to perceive and analyse possible futures: future threats can be envisioned and resilience developed to overcome emerging dangers.

    The phases of a potential large-scale attack scenario. Assessing future impacts and risks is highly challenging and entails two-fold uncertainties: the future developments themselves and the risks inherent in them.

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    However, foresight helps us to understand emerging phenomena, thereby enabling us to build appropriate resilience and preparedness. Integrating future-oriented technology analysis and risk assessment methodologies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. On foresight design and management: A classification framework for foresight exercises. In: Giaoutzi, M.

    Recent Developments in Foresight Methodologies. New York, , pp. A high-quality living environment provides a variety of services and entertainment choices as well as the possibility to use and enjoy them without fear. In the AATU research project, the views and experiences of residents concerning the liveability and safety of their living environment were identified and developed as safety and security business solutions.

    The key factors enhancing and sustaining safety identified by the residents are shown in Figure 1. Creating safe living environments takes cooperation Developing business concepts into practical solutions often requires multi-player cooperation. The mix of different functions and responsibilities involved in creating safe and secure living environments is similarly shared across local and regional authorities.

    A positive consequence of this multi-actor cooperation is that safety and security issues are managed from a variety of perspectives.

    In addition to public authorities, the safety and security of living environments is continuously developed and maintained by many representatives of. Safer living environments were found to consist of a broad mix of different elements and functions. The study utilised two safety surveys conducted among residents by the City of Helsinki.